It is a pyramidal-shape tree, of the rosaceous family, coming from oriental Europe and Occidental Asia. The bigger producers are China, Italy, United States and Argentina (source: FAO).
The multiplication is done by seed and grafting. The pear, with difference to most of the fruits coming from deciduous trees, have better quality when they are harvested slightly green.
Climate and soil requirements
Due to the big quantity of varieties, the pear tree is cultivated in very different climates. The adaptation to mild climates, winters, low freezes and sunny summers with not too high temperatures is good. During the flowering period, it is sensitive to fog, humidity and dew. It flowers at 10ºC and is able to resist very low temperatures. The pear trees need from 900 to 1000 hours of cold in winter to get out of its rest.
The pear tree requires healthy and permeable soils and they are damage by the stagnant of soil. The optimum soil to this tree is with pH around 7, fertile and without salinity.
The plantation spacing varies according the patron used. Nowadays, thanks to rootstock it is easy to find smaller tree than the usual ones. They are cultivated in bushes, with a distance between trees of 0,8m and with 3m between bushes. To avoid a too high density, it is necessary to prone after plantation so much in the laterals as in the upper side of the plant.
The irrigation must be frequent because the growing of the fruit depends on the water availability. After the harvest the demand of water is lower, although it is still necessary to keep humidity in the soil to prevent damages in the trees.
Drip irrigation is the most commonly used method in the pear tree. The distance between drippers is from 0,5m to 1m depending from the texture of soil. Sometimes it is recommended to install high sprinklers, to avoid damages in the flowering made by the frost.