The almond tree belongs to the rosaceous family, originally from the Middle East region. Physiologically close related to the peach tree (which is one of the possible hybrid rootstocks generally available on the market), almond trees can also reach 6 meters high and 4 meters of diameter. The bigger almond producers are United States, Spain, Italy, Iran and Morocco (source: FAO).
The almond fruit has become very popular worldwide due to its high contain in E vitamin and low in saturated fat, what has increased the cultivated area around the globe.
Climate and soil requirements
Tree adapted to template areas, very sensitive to humid conditions. Good adaptability to water scarce conditions.
It is able to grow in all kind of soils, even in those not much deep and chalky. The optimum pH ranges from 7.0 to 8.0 where the most suitable are the loose and light soils. Almond trees are very sensitive to saturated conditions at root level.
The plantation spacing varies according to the ecologic and edaphologic conditions, the variety and rootstock; harvesting method and irrigation system employed.
Traditional tree spacing were configurations of 7x5m and 6x4m, while trending super-intensive plantations nowadays easily reach 3.5×1.5m.
Although almond trees are very resistant to drought conditions, the response to an extra watering application is very fruitful. There are two main critical periods where it becomes essential the water application, one during the almond-filling in spring, and 15-20 before harvest.